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Tutorials


Morning parallel sessions October 9,  2011 (10:00 - 13:00)


1. 10:00 - 11:30 Energy Harvesting
    
Energy Harvesting: Dr. Loreto Mateu, Fraunhofer IIS, Nuremberg, Germany

2.
10:00 - 13:00  Advanced Battery Technologies For Telecom Applications
     Dr. Subhas Chalasani, President R&D, Exide, India

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Afternoon parallel sessions October 9, 2011 (13:30 - 17:00)

3. Rechargeable Batteries
     Rechargeable batteries: Key component between Smart Grid and Electrical Transportation: 
     Prof. Dr. P.H.L. (Peter) Notten,
Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands
     Modelling of rechargeable batteries leading to advanced Battery Management Systems: 
     Dr. D. (Dmitry) Danilov,
Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands

4. Future Energy Grids: Automation and Monitoring Challenges

     Prof. Rik W. De Doncker, RWTH Aachen, Germany
     Prof. Antonello Monti, R
WTH Aachen, Germany
     Prof. Ferdinanda Ponci,
RWTH Aachen, Germany

5. Fuel Cells
     Dr. Kathryn Bullock, Coolohm inc., USA

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 Fuel Cells

Dr. Kathryn Bullock, Coolohm inc. USA 

Fuel cells operate at temperatures from about 70 °C for a proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) up to about 1000 degrees for a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Six types of fuel cells and their applications are discussed, along with their fuels, operating systems, safety, and environmental issues. Theoretical efficiencies of these electrochemical power sources are calculated and compared with efficiencies of traditional mechanical generators. Also, there will be time for discussions with and among attendees of new application standards and recent field experience in the deployment of PEMFCs in telecom systems.

    
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Dr. Kathryn Bullock
Biography of Dr. Kathryn Bullock

Dr. Kathryn Bullock is president of Coolohm, Inc., a consulting company that specializes in batteries and fuel cells for telecom power systems and other industrial applications. Since 2006 she has taught the IEEE fuel cell tutorials at the North American INTELEC meetings and also a graduate course in electrochemical power systems at Villanova University in Pennsylvania. After earning her Ph.D. in physical chemistry at Northwestern University, in Chicago, Illinois, she worked for over 30 years developing advanced lead-acid batteries and other power sources. Her career includes positions as technical manager of the Bell Laboratories battery group from 1991 to 1996 and as a researcher, manager and executive vice president of technology in several U.S. battery/power system companies.

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 Rechargeable Batteries


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Prof. Dr. P.H.L. (Peter) Notten
     Rechargeable batteries: Key component between Smart Grid and Electrical Transportation
(Peter H.L. Notten, Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands)

Nowadays, there is general consensus that due to global warming, the shortage of oil and gas and the undesirable use of coal, electricity generation will take place in a decentralized way in the future. Obviously, solar, wind and bio-mass will contribute significantly to decentralized electricity generation in the near future. Due to the unpredictable nature of these fluctuating energy sources it has been identified that local electricity storage will play a key role. Rechargeable batteries will indispensably take up this role. However, the cost aspect still plays a dominant role and currently forms a limiting factor for wide-spread domestic storage. Simultaneously, another interesting development takes place in the transportation sector, inducing the transformation from rather energy inefficient internal combustion engines to much more efficient electrical engines. Considering the overall efficiencies of both systems, electrical transportation appears to be at least two times more efficient and has many more additional advantages. In contrast to domestic storage, mobile storage is therefore much more cost-effective. It is clear that when many cars are connected to the grid these form a serious buffer for electrical energy, which can also be used to deliver electricity back to local buildings and/or the grid in periods of shortages. Assuming that the management of the various distributed energy flows takes place in a coordinated and controlled way, the building environment and electrical vehicles will become connected in the near future, forming the as-denoted smart grid.

Biography of Prof. Dr. P.H.L. (Peter) Notten

Peter H.L. Notten was born in The Netherlands in 1952, was educated in analytical chemistry and joined Philips Research from 1975 to 2010. While working at these laboratories on the electrochemistry of etching of III-V semiconductors he received his PhD from the Eindhoven University of Technology in 1989. Since then his activities have been focusing on the research of hydride-forming (electrode) materials for application in rechargeable NiMH batteries, switchable optical mirrors, gas phase storage and Lithium-based rechargeable battery systems. Since 2000 he has been appointed as (part-time) professor at the Eindhoven University of Technology where he is heading the group Energy Materials and Devices. His main interest includes the development of (i) advanced battery and hydrogen storage materials, (ii) new battery technologies, (iii) modeling of rechargeable battery systems and (iv) the development of new Battery Management Systems (BMS). He has published as (co)author about 150 scientific papers and contributions to scientific books and owns many patents.

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Dr. D. (Dmitry) Danilov
Modelling of rechargeable batteries leading to advanced Battery Management Systems
(Dmitry Danilov, Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands)

Proper functioning of rechargeable batteries is of crucial importance for large number of applications. Safe and efficient functioning of rechargeable batteries in their application can be ensured by advanced Battery Management System (BMS). Modern BMS have to indicate a number of important battery characteristics, such as remaining operation time, remaining charge and power. During recent years a lot of activities in the field of modeling of rechargeable batteries have successfully been performed in the Energy Materials and Devices group of the Eindhoven University of Technology. These physical and (electro)chemical-based models include NiCd, NiMH and Li-ion batteries and describe the complex behavior under a wide variety of operation conditions. The detailed understanding of the various processes inside sealed Li-ion batteries by means of our modeling approach generated a much better understanding of the functioning of these complex systems. It is known that the performance of the batteries deteriorates upon cycling, in particular the capacity fades and the impedance grows, leading to a decrease in storage capacity and power. Therefore the mathematical models have to be adaptive. Armed with such adaptive models advanced BMS may cope with negative ageing effects and can therefore significantly improve the battery performance. Adaptive mathematical models are therefore an efficient tool for improving and refining BMS.

Biography of Dr. D. (Dmitry) Danilov

Dmitry Danilov was born in Russia in 1969. He has a background in Physics and Mathematics and obtained his M.Sc. at the Saint-Petersburg University in 1993. In 1997 he started his Ph.D. study at the University of Tilburg, studying model selection procedures and pre-testing. He obtained his PhD degree in 2003. At the end of 2002 he joined Eindhoven University of Technology, first being involved in research activities on "Battery Modeling and Battery Management" and later on "Integrated all-solid-state batteries". He conducted studies on ageing and adaptive State-of-Charge indication for rechargeable Li-ion batteries. His current research interests include mathematical simulation of complex electrochemical systems, including Li-ion and NiMH batteries and hydrogen storage materials. He has published around 20 papers and is a coauthor of two books.

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 Energy Harvesting

(Dr. Loreto Mateu, Fraunhofer IIS, Nuremberg, Germany)

Energy harvesting is defined as the process by which energy is collected from the environment employing a transducer that transforms the input energy into electrical energy to power autonomous electronic devices. An overview of a self-powered system will be introduced together with the different existing possibilities of operating the electronic load to achieve energy neutral operation.

An electrical model of the transducer is mandatory for accurate electrical simulations of the complete energy harvesting power supply. The electrical model of thermo-electric, piezoelectric, electrostatic and electromagnetic transducers will be discussed as well as the voltage and current levels provided by them. The most relevant AC-DC and DC-DC converters to be employed by energy harvesting generators will be presented together with their advantages and disadvantages. The possibility to use regulation loops in the converters in order to present the optimal load to the energy harvesting transducers and their impact over the amount of harvested energy will be pointed.

    
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Dr. Loreto Mateu
Biography of Dr. Loreto Mateu

Dr. Loreto Mateu obtained her B.S. in Industrial Engineering in 1999, her M.S. in Electronic Engineering in 2002 and her Ph.D. degree in June 2009 with a thesis titled Energy Harvesting from Human Passive Power at the Universidad Politécnica de Cataluña, Barcelona (Spain). She had a Ph.D. grant from May 2003 to May 2007. In June 2007, she joined the Power Efficient Systems Department at Fraunhofer IIS, Nuremberg (Germany), where she works as research engineer. Dr. Mateu has experience with AC-DC and DC-DC converters for energy harvesting generators, the electrical modelation of thermo-generators and piezoelectrics and on the topic of measurement automation. She has three papers published in journals, fifteen papers published in conferences. She has been granted two patents and is co-editor and co-author of the book titled Handbook of Energy Harvesting Power Supplies and Applications that will be published in 2011 by Pan Stanford.

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 Future Energy Grids: Automation and Monitoring Challenges 

Prof. Rik W. De Doncker, RWTH Aachen, Germany
Prof. Antonello Monti, RWTH Aachen, Germany 
Prof. Ferdinanda Ponci, RWTH Aachen, Germany

The objective of this tutorial is to provide the context of new communication needs in power systems, their requirements, in light of monitoring and control functions, and the consequences on the implementation methods.

The focus of this tutorial is on future power systems with penetration of large capacity of renewable sources, usage of
energy storage in various forms, and integration of energy grids other than electrical.

Increased use of renewable energy sources, particularly in very different scales and distances from the loads, is expected to push a growing potential mismatch between supply and demand of electrical energy, and between transport capacity and energy consumption. To address these energy management challenges, storage capacity must be increased, both in the slow response forms of interaction with heat and gas grids and in the fast response form of electrochemical storage. Finally, demand side management and dual demand side management may facilitate load tracking. In particular, in this direction, the role of the building stock and of their heating system is particularly considered as a key enabling solution.

As a result, the distribution grid is supposed to face significant changes in the near future, becoming a more active
player in the energy management and then requiring more intelligent solutions for the operation. In effect, the coordination of all these factors to achieve generation-demand balance in a dynamic way, to fully exploit resources and
infrastructure, requires new characteristics of monitoring and control. In particular, measurements should be obtained at a very high rate, and in a synchronized manner. The distribution of monitoring and control functions on
one hand leads to local elaboration and use of the information, but on the other hand requires more exchange of information with the other local applications.

Distributed state estimation and control functions will be used as case studies to investigate the impact of distributed
solutions on the information exchange. Multi-Agent Systems constitute a candidate framework for distributed applications but their integration presents challenges that will also be discussed.

Biography of Prof. Rik W. De Doncker

Prof. Rik W. De Doncker has directed the Institute for Power Electronics and Electrical Drives (ISEA) at RWTH Aachen University for more than ten years. In 2006 he was appointed director of E.ON Energy Research Center (ERC) at RWTH Aachen, where he leads the Institute for Power Generation and Storage Systems. Prior to this, he has worked at General Electric Co., among other places. Prof. De Doncker headed the Power Electronics Society of the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE), the largest international association of engineers. He has been elected member of the scientific executive committee in ETG ("Energietechnische Gesellschaft") of the Association for Electrical, Electronic and Information Technologies (VDE) since mid-2007.

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Prof. Rik W. De Doncker

Biography Prof. Antonello Monti

Prof. Antonello Monti started the new Institute for Automation of Complex Power Systems of E.ON ERC at RWTH Aachen University in October 2008. Before joining ERC he was Professor for electrical engineering at the University of South Carolina, USA, for more than 8 years. He received his doctoral degree from Politecnico di Milano, Italy, in 1994. In 1995 he became Assistant Professor at the same institute. He also was with Ansaldo Industrial for 4 years and worked on the development of digital control of large power electrical drives. 

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Prof. Antonello Monti 

 Biography Prof. Ferdinanda Ponci

 Prof. Ferdinanda Ponci joined the Institute for Automation of Complex Power Systems of E.ON ERC at RWTH Aachen University in 2009. She received her doctoral degree in electrical engineering from Politecnico di Milano, Italy, in 2002. In 2003 she became Assistant Professor of the Department of Electrical Engineering at the University of South Carolina, USA. In 2008 she was tenured and promoted to Associate Professor. She is a senior member of IEEE, a member of the Administration Committee of the Power Electronics Society and of the Instrumentation and Measurement Society. She is also the Liaison of the Power Electronics Society with the IEEE WIE. 

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Prof. Ferdinanda Ponci 

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 Advanced Battery Technologies For Telecom Applications


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Subhas Chalasani, President R&D, Exide, India 
   

Subhas Chalasani, President R&D, Exide, India 

Advanced battery technologies are being considered lately for standby applications in telecom and the utilities. These technologies include advanced lead-acid, nickel metal hydride, secondary lithium, and secondary zinc-air, sodium-sulfur, and vanadium red-ox batteries. The success of these technologies greatly depends on battery, float life, temperature stability, and safety. In this tutorial, various battery technologies will be discussed in simple terms. The advantages and the disadvantages of any particular technology for standby applications will be pointed out and the critical factors which can affect system reliability will be discussed. Also, battery maintenance and monitoring issues will be addressed. 

Biography of Subhas Chalasani

Dr. Chalasani has over 25 years experience in the battery industry and holds a Ph. D. in Electrochemistry from IIT Bombay. He did his post doctoral research at University of Texas at Arlington, and Loughborough University of Technology, England. Currently, He is President, R&D, Exide Industries Ltd. Earlier, he was a battery consultant at Boeing developing lithium ion batteries for commercial airplanes. He led various battery development programs at General Motors, Valence Technology, Tyco Electronics, Lucent Technologies, AT&T Bell Labs. He has 16 patents and over 25 publications to his credit. 

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